Pourquoi l'enseignement bilingue est-il important ?

Partager sur facebook
Partager sur twitter
Partager sur linkedin

Bilinguisme is a difficult area to research, a dense forest of confounding variables, of which sampling, education levels, tasks used, variations in the languages themselves and different outcomes from different language combinations, are but a few. There is evidence, however, that expertise in more than one language provides cognitive benefits on top of increased opportunities. Findings in neurology have related language acquisition with structural changes in the brain that assist with executive functions such as cognitive flexibility, creative thinking and attention management.

Qu'est-ce que l'éducation bilingue ?

L'étude du bilinguisme

Human behaviour and perceptions are mediated through our language; the codes that are unlocked when new languages are learnt help create a new level of perception. Leading Swiss academic and expert on bilingualism, Francois Grosjean, has shown how the bilingual child or adult is not simply the sum of two (or more) monolinguals; rather, he or she is the owner of a unique and specific linguistic configuration. The bilingual manages and manipulates attention to one language or the other, actively but often subconsciously. Their languages not only coexist; they interact to produce a complete system of its own. 

Avantages de l'éducation bilingue

Dans le monde globalisé d'aujourd'hui, l'éducation bilingue joue un rôle crucial et offre des avantages distincts, en particulier pour les jeunes générations. 

1. Citoyens du monde

Les personnes bilingues ont une valeur inestimable dans le monde d'aujourd'hui. Elles découvrent que les perspectives d'emploi s'ouvrent et que les horizons sociaux s'élargissent. Leur engagement envers le monde et la société humaine dans laquelle nous vivons est riche ; leur esprit est agile.

2. Avantages psychologiques

Furthermore, their attributes go beyond simply translating words from one code to another; to know another language well brings subtle psychological benefits. These include the ability to see both sides of the story, to appreciate extended meaning and enjoy a wide range of conceptual understanding. Such attributes are good for the individual involved and crucially, help towards that elusive goal of international harmony. Bilinguals act as bridge builders, the go-betweens who can explain one culture to members of the other and act as intermediaries between the two. 

3. La maîtrise de la langue

L'enseignement international a contribué à renforcer la maîtrise des langues. Alors que les familles se mondialisent et que de plus en plus de jeunes voyagent pour leurs études et leur travail, ils peuvent rencontrer un futur partenaire loin de leur pays de naissance, ce qui se traduit par un nombre croissant de familles multiculturelles partageant plusieurs langues dans leurs foyers internationaux. Alors que nous sommes confrontés à la prédominance d'une seule langue dans de vastes domaines de l'activité humaine, l'anglais étant la langue 1 ou 2 pour un grand nombre, voire la plupart, de ces étudiants, il est fascinant de constater que de plus en plus de versions de l'anglais sont reconnues. La population des citoyens du monde partageant les avantages de diverses formes de bilinguisme est en augmentation.

4. Comprendre les cultures

On top of the functional benefits of language learning, bilingualism is about understanding cultures. With the creation of their unique language system, the bilingual is also making sense of his or her relationship to both of the cultures to which the linguistic code has given access.  At the same time as managing their attention to this code, its vocabulary and its syntax, the bilingual will be paying attention to the cultural variants between the languages. They are constantly combining and blending aspects of the cultures they are living, making linguistic and cultural choices according to the needs of the circumstance.

Le résultat est un "espace entre", comme l'habitat des Third Culture Kids. L'idée des Third Culture Kids a été développée pour désigner les enfants qui grandissent en dehors du pays natal de leurs parents (qui étaient souvent eux-mêmes expatriés). Ils deviennent partie intégrante d'une troisième culture plutôt que d'une culture issue d'un simple mélange du pays d'origine et du pays d'accueil.  François Grosjean souligne que les personnes bilingues qui sont autorisées à être ce qu'elles sont, et à accepter leur double (ou multiple) expérience vécue, sont des membres précieux de la société qui comblent le fossé entre les cultures auxquelles elles appartiennent. Il s'agit là d'un rôle important joué par le type d'offre éducative que l'on trouve dans les établissements suivants Institut Montana.

Stratégie d'enseignement de l'éducation bilingue

La classe bilingue

The bilingual classroom is an inspiring place. Just seeing children’s school-work on display, with captions and labels exhibiting proficiency in two languages, is mind expanding. But it does not happen by itself and the pure quality of instruction is critical – every child must feel happy and confident to be open to the challenges as well as the benefits of learning bilingually. Research into the bilingual brain is guiding teaching methods. It is understood now that these children use both languages to make sense of the world; they are very adaptive, deepening their understanding of the first language while acquiring the second; and the process has important positive effects on other aspects of cognitive development, such as  attention management.  The Bilingual Elementary section of Institut Montana peut s'appuyer sur la longue histoire d'éducation internationale de l'école, ainsi que sur le dévouement et l'expertise de son personnel. L'enseignement dans une classe bilingue nécessite une approche approfondie, avec beaucoup d'évaluation individuelle et une aide continue. Un enseignement de qualité passe par l'utilisation de principes d'instruction fondés sur des preuves, tels que le modelage et la verbalisation par l'enseignant, la pratique guidée et un rythme de cours soutenu pour maintenir l'engagement des élèves. 

The Montana Elementary school classrooms are tucked away in a pretty corner of the magnificent Institut Montana campus. As soon as a new child arrives, their language needs are quickly assessed and appropriate support organised. It might be that the child has some skills but needs in-class support to benefit fully from the lesson. In this case, teachers deploy the integrative EAL (for English) or DaZ (for German) programme where support is provided by an additional teacher within the normal classroom following the standard lessons. If the child would  benefit from more intensive language tuition, they receive help specially tailored to their needs. For half of the English or German language lessons, they work with an extra teacher outside the classroom so that they quickly learn the foundational skills to enable rapid progress in the new language and find the subject matter within their reach. For the other half they continue to participate in normal lessons so that they can interact with their peers. Peer interaction in the bilingual classroom takes on a special importance. One of the keys to language learning is motivation, and children who find themselves playing and forging friendships that transcend what would have been language barriers are very motivated. Social skills are finely tuned through the process of welcoming someone to the group and helping the new arrival to feel at home, whatever language gaps there might be. In this multi-lingual group of young learners, it is important not to hold up one language, and therefore cultural identity, as superior to another. Seeing one of the languages and its culture as the dominant one is counter-productive to the cultural harmony the bilingual classroom seeks to promote, even when the curriculum followed belongs to one of the languages. The Institut Montana Bilingual Elementary School follows the curriculum of its home country, Switzerland, but the balance between the two languages is scrupulously maintained. Teaching is distributed at 50% of the time for each language. Each academic year the groups change Class Advisors, swapping between German and English speaking, so there is a further balance in exposure to both languages.  

Efficacité de l'enseignement bilingue

Un avenir radieux

Il ne fait aucun doute que l'apprentissage d'une nouvelle langue élargit les horizons et ajoute une compétence utile. En outre, il apporte de grands avantages cognitifs qui, bien qu'ils soient soumis à trop de variables pour être séparés, sont réels et significatifs. Sur Institut MontanaA la fin de leur scolarité à l'école primaire, ces enfants découvrent un monde de possibilités. Ils possèdent les compétences avancées en allemand qui leur ouvrent la porte de la maturité suisse, exigeante sur le plan académique, qu'ils peuvent choisir d'étudier en allemand ou en allemand et en anglais. Ils peuvent s'engager sur la voie de la Diplôme du baccalauréat international, a passport to universities all over the world. Or they can continue their bilingual studies at the Bilingual Secondary School while assessing where their ambitions might take them. Children coming together to learn, to play and to collaborate in a space where two languages are common currency creates a hybrid space with a culture that belongs to neither one nor the other. The bilingual classroom is a space for inclusivity, where a new light is shone on ideas about cultural identity. Its students will be the global citizens of tomorrow, broad-minded and insightful adults who are adept at sharing and discussing knowledge in a multicultural environment and totally at home in an international Zoom meeting. For these bright children, the future is bright.

Écrit par

Institut Montana Zugerberg

Institut Montana Zugerberg

Institut Montana Zugerberg is a fully accredited Swiss international boarding school for 90 years now and since 1987 an official IB World School. The School’s longstanding experience in academic excellence allows us to ideally prepare students as well educated and confident individuals ready for success at world-renowned international universities.