缓解我们在基础年级的游戏焦虑症

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圣彼得学校 在巴塞罗那,我们有一种理论化的、基于科学研究和事实的谈论游戏的方式。

More than ever, parents and schools have to engage in competing discourses of play. When parents choose their children’s early years education, they choose where, when and how their children engage in play. They face pressures about how to manage play time to ensure their children meet or exceed their development milestones. We could go as far as to say that our contemporary society suffers from 扮演焦虑的角色! (Drew, 2018)

圣彼得学校 in Barcelona we have a way of talking about play that is theorised and based on scientific research and facts. We cannot be relying on intuition here. Play is a cultural concept and our definition of it will affect our teaching practice. Especially in an international school, it is important to share a common understanding of what play is with the learning community.

当我们在圣彼得学校谈及游戏时,我们的意思是什么?

First of all, we need to steer away from seeing play as separate from “real work” or “real study”. This perspective is well entrenched in our society. We continue to timetable and dissect work and leisure  time in schools and workplaces. Yet, work and play are not exclusive practices.

让我们把游戏看成是一个光谱(Zosh et al.在光谱的一端,我们有没有外在目标的自由游戏。在另一端,我们有由儿童指导但有内在目标的游戏(如指导性游戏或游戏)。

圣彼得学校 在巴塞罗那,我们努力为孩子们提供日常的邀请,让他们能够 引导游戏.研究证明,这种形式的游戏比自由游戏和直接指导能带来更好的学习结果(Zosh 等,2018)。在许多领域都是如此,例如:数学、技术、科学、身体、运动、语言和社会技能。

期间 引导游戏 教师的作用是引导环境或反馈走向学习目标。但学习环境本身鼓励儿童主导的探索和发现(Zosh等人,2018)。

引导游戏 children have an active role in the construction of knowledge. They manipulate and process information rather than observe or rote respond. We know that children who discover information for themselves have better retention of information than children who are directly told (Sliogeris & Almeida, 2019).

我们也认识到 引导游戏 最大限度地提高参与度,因为它自然要求儿童保持任务。他们需要平衡自己的愿望和同学的愿望。我们还鼓励 假装游戏 as it has been linked to increased self-regulation ability (Zosh et al., 2018). Children tend to avoid distractions that are in conflict with their imaginative play narrative.

研究还告诉我们,儿童创造性游戏的性质因教室里的资源、空间和合作类型而不同。 当资源为儿童所熟悉,并在活泼的空间中使用,主要涉及与同伴的合作,我们可以观察到高水平的可能性思维和 小C的创造力.但在一个宁静的空间里,有陌生的和具有挑战性的资源,并且儿童得到了成人的支持--创造力围绕着持续的问题解决和发展新的创造性产出--。 大C的创造力 (Arnott & Duncan, 2019)。)

Knowledge is meaningful to children when they can connect it to something familiar and when they can transfer it to new situations. But young children might struggle to make meaning unless we guide their play. Let’s take a playful science activity for example. Children provided with materials, without any intentional teaching of science concepts will engage with them in an everyday way, but will not learn science concepts (Fridman et al., 2020). Think of a child who knows to wear a jumper on a cold day (thanks to their everyday experience) but might not know the scientific concept of insulation.

提供有效的早期教育课程,包括 圣彼得学校 在巴塞罗那,我们为我们最年轻的学生提供 指导 playful activities. It no longer makes sense to say that pedagogies should be either play or direct instruction (lessons). In this context, we can ease our 游戏焦虑症.正如所解释的那样。 引导游戏 可以帮助儿童集中精力学习,避免分心。同时,我们利用他们内在的动力和对游戏的热爱来发挥优势。


撰稿人:Krystina Smolenski,基础年级负责人 巴塞罗那圣彼得学校


参考文献

  1. Kaufman, J. & Beghetto, R. (2009).超越大和小。创造力的四个C模型。 普通心理学的回顾, 13(1), 1-12.
  2. Arnott, L. & Duncan, P. (2019).探讨儿童早期教育中创造性游戏的教学文化。 儿童早期研究杂志, 17(4), 309-328.
  3. Fridman, R., Eden, S., & Spektor-Levy, O. (2020).学龄前儿童在科学探索过程中新生的探究、元认知和自我调节能力。 心理学的前沿问题, 11, 1790.
  4. Sliogeris, M., Almeida, S.C. (2019).幼儿通过教师指导的游戏和儿童指导的游戏相结合的方式发展科学知识。 科学教育研究, 49,1569-1593.
  5. Drew, Ch. (2018).我们称之为 "游戏",然而..."。在儿童早期教育和照料市场中导航 "游戏焦虑"。 早期儿童研究杂志》2019, 17(2), 116-128.
  6. Zosh, J. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Hopkins, E. J., Jensen, H., Liu, C., Neale, D., Solis, S. L., & Whitebread, D. (2018)。访问无法访问的地方。将游戏重新定义为一个频谱。 心理学的前沿问题, 9, 1124.

撰写人

巴塞罗那圣彼得学校

St Peter s School Barcelona

St. Peter’s school is the only school in Barcelona with the IB Continuum taught in English. We offer the three International Baccalaureate programmes: Early and Primary Years, Middle Years and Diploma Programme. St. Peter's is the only school with a Science Lab for Early Years, the first centre that has introduced subjects such as blockchain, nanoscience, neuroscience and artificial intelligence in their curriculum. It has a strong focus on Science, Technology, Critical Thinking and Change Making. St. Peter's has been ranked as the best school in Spain by the prestigious magazine Forbes.