Как Швейцария отбирает свою академическую элиту

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Швейцария - одна из самых сложных стран в Европе, когда речь идет о поступлении в высшие учебные заведения. Только 18% населения могут поступить и учиться в традиционных университетах. Еще 10% выбирают альтернативные пути получения высшего образования, а 70% проходят профессиональное обучение. В ЕС и за рубежом не менее 401ТП1Т учатся в традиционных университетах и менее половины населения выбирают профессиональное обучение. Хотя Швейцария, особенно ее немецкоязычная часть, ставит значительные препятствия на пути подростков, стремящихся поступить в университет (Женева и Тичино - два исключения из этого правила), она является крупным импортером иностранных ученых, которые сегодня составляют почти 20% населения крупных городских кантонов, таких как кантон Цюрих.

Кантоны различаются по времени и методу отбора. В результате поступление в академические элитные школы ("гимназияˮ, "лицейˮ, "школа зрелости", "коллеж", "лисео" и т.д.) будет либо несколько сложным и напряженным (например, в Восточной Швейцарии, Цюрихе и других кантонах), либо относительно беспроблемным (Центральная Швейцария, Базель Штадт, "ла Романдия" и Тичино).

Год 6: Отбор академической элиты

In nearly all Swiss cantons children are preselected in Year 5 and selected in Year 6 (last year of German-speaking primary school or Cycle 2 in French-speaking cantons). In Ticino, selection happens in Year 5 before entrance into “scuola media” (“ciclo di osservazione”). As children enter lower secondary school they will be put in different streams or even different schools depending on the cantonal system.

7-9 классы: лучшие ученики

The academic elite in most cantons will continue into Year 7 in the highest stream of a comprehensive lower secondary school, as in St Gallen or Thurgau, most of “la Romandie” and Ticino. In some cantons, however, there are different lower secondary schools for different academic levels, including a lower secondary school for top students (“Progymnasialklasse” in Fribourg, “voie progymnasiale” in Vaud, “Sekundarschule P” in Basel-Land, “Bezirksschule” in Aargau). A minority of German-speaking Swiss cantons even have a six-year academic elite school called “Langgymnasium” (the first two years can also be called “Untergymnasiumˮ, as in Graubünden).

7-9 классы: средние учащиеся

Students with average ability will find themselves in an academically less challenging stream of lower secondary school (“Sekundarschule”, “école secondaire”, “scuola media”) where the main focus is on the more demanding apprenticeships (such as commercial apprenticeships, IT or health care). A minority of students will also attempt to enter academic elite schools at the end of Year 8 or 9, depending upon the canton (Year 11 in “la Romandie”).These programmes are either offered at separate institutions (“Sekundarschule Aˮ or “Sekundarschuleˮ in many German-speakingcantons or “voie générale” in Vaud) or they are part of comprehensive lower secondary schools for all academic levels, as in St Gallen, Thurgau, most of “la Romandie” and Ticino.

7-9 классы: учащиеся с низкими академическими способностями и учащиеся с особыми потребностями

Students perceived to be of low academic ability will not normally be offered a way to enter academic elite schools after Years 8 or 9, though some cantons have started to pave the way to higher education for students of such schools. Students with low academic ability will be put either in lower secondary schools whose leavers mainly serve manual apprenticeships (called varyingly “Sekundarschule B”, “Realschule” etc) or join the lowest stream (“Grundansprüche” etc) of a comprehensive lower secondary school, as in St Gallen, Thurgau, “la Romandie” and Ticino. There are also special-needs schools for those unable to join regular lower secondary schools (PCEDS, “enseignement spècialisée”, “scuole speciali”, “Sonderschulklassenˮ, “Kleinklassen”, “Werkschuleˮ). Most Swiss schools will try to keep special-needs students in mainstream schools with integrated learning support (“integrative Förderung”, “soutien intégratif”, “sostegno integrativo”).

8-9 классы: отбор академической элиты

Most cantons in Switzerland entrust the teachers of lower secondary schools with the selection of students for academic elite schools. The main requirement will be a good school report at the end of the first semester of Year 8 or 9. Other cantons select on the basis of school reports and externally assessed entrance tests, while a minority rely only on externally assessed entrance tests (see below).The remaining students start apprenticeships with or without the vocational university entrance exam or join a specialised middle school.

Три метода отбора

In Eastern Switzerland, two or three cantons including St Gallen and Thurgau base the decision entirely on entrance tests and admit no more than 15% of all students. In half a dozen cantons (mostly in German-speaking Switzerland) the decision depends on the school report and an entrance examination; entering academic elite schools will be both difficult and stressful in such cantons and about 20% on average make it. In the overwhelming majority of Swiss cantons the decision is left to the lower secondary school teachers of Years 8 and 9 and entrance into academic elite schools poses less of a hurdle; in such cantons up to half of all students end up at an academic elite school (e.g. Geneva and Ticino).

Школы для академической элиты после 8 и 9 классов

In nearly all cantons the academic elite is separated in Year 8 or 9 from the majority of students and educated in specialised academic elite schools with a programme of between three and four years. In Valais academic elite school covers five years (“Kollegium”). They are varyingly called “Kurzgymnasium” or “Gymnasium” (most of German-speaking Switzer-land), “collège” (Geneva), “lycée” (Jura, Neuchâtel), “liceoˮ (Ticino), “école de maturité” (Vaud) or “Kollegiumˮ (Valais). The remaining students continue into Year 9, when there is a second chance to join an elite school.


Автор Робин Халл, автор книги "Путеводитель по швейцарской системе образования".

Это отрывок из единственного существующего на сегодняшний день обзора швейцарской системы образования на английском языке для родителей с международным образованием. Его можно заказать на сайте www.guideto.ch

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Hull's School Zurich

Hull's School Zurich

Hull's School - первый английский колледж в Цюрихе для подростков. Программа четырехлетнего колледжа преподается на английском языке (кроме современных языков) и охватывает пятый и шестой классы (10-13 классы). Студентов готовят к экзаменам IGCSE и A-level.