スイスのアカデミックエリートの選び方

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スイスは、ヨーロッパの中でも高等教育への進学が最も難しい国のひとつです。伝統的な大学に入学して学ぶことができるのは、全人口のうち18%に過ぎません。さらに10%が高等教育への代替ルートを選び、70%が職業訓練を受けています。EUおよび世界では、少なくとも40%が伝統的な大学で学び、人口の半分以下が職業訓練を選択しています。スイス、特にドイツ語圏では、大学進学を目指す若者には大きなハードルがあるが(ジュネーブとティチーノは例外)、外国人学者の受け入れは盛んで、チューリッヒ州のような都市部の大きなカントンでは、人口の約20%を外国人が占めている。

選抜の時期や方法は、カントンによって異なる。その結果、エリート教育機関(ギムナジウム、リセ、エコール・ド・マチュリテ、コレージュ、リセオなど)への入学は、やや困難でストレスのたまるもの(東スイス、チューリヒなど)と、比較的問題のないもの(中央スイス、バーゼル、ラ・ロマンディ、ティチーノなど)があります。

Year 6: アカデミックエリートの選出

In nearly all Swiss cantons children are preselected in Year 5 and selected in Year 6 (last year of German-speaking primary school or Cycle 2 in French-speaking cantons). In Ticino, selection happens in Year 5 before entrance into “scuola media” (“ciclo di osservazione”). As children enter lower secondary school they will be put in different streams or even different schools depending on the cantonal system.

7-9年目:トップの学生

The academic elite in most cantons will continue into Year 7 in the highest stream of a comprehensive lower secondary school, as in St Gallen or Thurgau, most of “la Romandie” and Ticino. In some cantons, however, there are different lower secondary schools for different academic levels, including a lower secondary school for top students (“Progymnasialklasse” in Fribourg, “voie progymnasiale” in Vaud, “Sekundarschule P” in Basel-Land, “Bezirksschule” in Aargau). A minority of German-speaking Swiss cantons even have a six-year academic elite school called “Langgymnasium” (the first two years can also be called “Untergymnasiumˮ, as in Graubünden).

7-9年目:平均的な学生

Students with average ability will find themselves in an academically less challenging stream of lower secondary school (“Sekundarschule”, “école secondaire”, “scuola media”) where the main focus is on the more demanding apprenticeships (such as commercial apprenticeships, IT or health care). A minority of students will also attempt to enter academic elite schools at the end of Year 8 or 9, depending upon the canton (Year 11 in “la Romandie”).These programmes are either offered at separate institutions (“Sekundarschule Aˮ or “Sekundarschuleˮ in many German-speakingcantons or “voie générale” in Vaud) or they are part of comprehensive lower secondary schools for all academic levels, as in St Gallen, Thurgau, most of “la Romandie” and Ticino.

Year 7-9: 学力の低い生徒と特別支援を必要とする生徒

Students perceived to be of low academic ability will not normally be offered a way to enter academic elite schools after Years 8 or 9, though some cantons have started to pave the way to higher education for students of such schools. Students with low academic ability will be put either in lower secondary schools whose leavers mainly serve manual apprenticeships (called varyingly “Sekundarschule B”, “Realschule” etc) or join the lowest stream (“Grundansprüche” etc) of a comprehensive lower secondary school, as in St Gallen, Thurgau, “la Romandie” and Ticino. There are also special-needs schools for those unable to join regular lower secondary schools (PCEDS, “enseignement spècialisée”, “scuole speciali”, “Sonderschulklassenˮ, “Kleinklassen”, “Werkschuleˮ). Most Swiss schools will try to keep special-needs students in mainstream schools with integrated learning support (“integrative Förderung”, “soutien intégratif”, “sostegno integrativo”).

Year 8-9: アカデミック・エリートの選抜

Most cantons in Switzerland entrust the teachers of lower secondary schools with the selection of students for academic elite schools. The main requirement will be a good school report at the end of the first semester of Year 8 or 9. Other cantons select on the basis of school reports and externally assessed entrance tests, while a minority rely only on externally assessed entrance tests (see below).The remaining students start apprenticeships with or without the vocational university entrance exam or join a specialised middle school.

3つの選択方法

In Eastern Switzerland, two or three cantons including St Gallen and Thurgau base the decision entirely on entrance tests and admit no more than 15% of all students. In half a dozen cantons (mostly in German-speaking Switzerland) the decision depends on the school report and an entrance examination; entering academic elite schools will be both difficult and stressful in such cantons and about 20% on average make it. In the overwhelming majority of Swiss cantons the decision is left to the lower secondary school teachers of Years 8 and 9 and entrance into academic elite schools poses less of a hurdle; in such cantons up to half of all students end up at an academic elite school (e.g. Geneva and Ticino).

Year8、9以降のアカデミックエリートのための学校

In nearly all cantons the academic elite is separated in Year 8 or 9 from the majority of students and educated in specialised academic elite schools with a programme of between three and four years. In Valais academic elite school covers five years (“Kollegium”). They are varyingly called “Kurzgymnasium” or “Gymnasium” (most of German-speaking Switzer-land), “collège” (Geneva), “lycée” (Jura, Neuchâtel), “liceoˮ (Ticino), “école de maturité” (Vaud) or “Kollegiumˮ (Valais). The remaining students continue into Year 9, when there is a second chance to join an elite school.


文:ロビン・ハル(「スイスの教育システムに関するガイド」の著者

これは、国際的な背景を持つ親御さんのために、現在存在する唯一の英語によるスイスの教育システムの概要からの抜粋です。以下のサイトからご注文いただけます。 www.guideto.ch

によって書かれています。

Hull's School チューリッヒ校

Hull's School Zurich

Hull's Schoolは、チューリッヒで初めてのティーンエイジャー向けのイングリッシュカレッジです。 4年間のカレッジプログラムは、英語で教えられ(現代語を除く)、英国の第5学年と第6学年(10年目から13年目)をカバーしています。生徒はIGCSEとAレベルの試験に備えます。